Jim Manzi says yes, and he has some data. He says that in 46 out of 48 states, there’s a positive correlation between a county’s neighborhood-level inequality and its vote for Kerry.
P.S. Also see interesting thoughts in the comments section below.
P.P.S. This paper by Mark Frank also seems relevant to the discussion. Frank writes:
For many states, the share of income held by the top decile experienced a prolonged period of stability after World War II, followed by a substantial increase in inequality during the 1980s and 1990s. This paper also presents an examination of the long-run relationship between income inequality and economic growth. Our findings indicate that the long-run relationship between inequality and growth is positive in nature and driven principally by the concentration of income in the upper end of the income distribution.
P.P.P.S. See also the graphs here (from chapter 5 of the Red State, Blue State book).